‘Commodification’ is often used as a short-hand way of defining what capitalism does, but all too often it’s used as a synonym for transaction or exchange. Yet buying and selling are not specific to capitalism and, more importantly, there are consequences in organising a critique of, or opposition to capitalism on the grounds that ‘markets’…

Movements Against the Enclosures: Virtual is Preamble

Full text, Make-World Paper #1, 2004. Much is made of the difference between ‘virtual’ and ‘actual’. Other than asserting a distinction between ‘unreal’ and the ‘real’, the uses of such oppositions demonstrates the real workings of a conflict between different approaches to and mappings of space, as both cyberspace and landscape.